Optimism and Pessimism in Non-Human Species
How to cite: Barata, R. (2023).Optimism and Pessimism in Non-Human Species. Human-Animal Science.
Optimism and pessimism, commonly attributed to human behavior, have been found through recent research to manifest in animals as well. Optimism refers to a disposition to anticipate favorable outcomes, whereas pessimism entails a proclivity to expect unfavorable outcomes (Hecht, 2013). Nevertheless, it is crucial to acknowledge that when describing animals, these terms are operationally defined and do not necessarily imply that animals experience optimism or pessimism in the same manner as humans do (Lagisz et al., 2020).